Networking in Public Clouds


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Networking in Public Clouds

Virtual networking in public clouds is different - there are no layer-2 segments, IP routing has unexpected quirks, and subnets behave almost like VRFs.

This module introduces the typical cloud networking services, and describes how they are implemented in AWS and Azure.

1:23:34 Introduction to Cloud Networking

This section defines typical cloud services, from SaaS to IaaS, provides an overview of network-related IaaS services, and describes typical multi-tenant requirements.

Cloud Services Overview 20:22 2017-07-13
What Services Will Your Cloud Offer 28:27 2017-07-13
IaaS Networking Services Overview 15:00 2017-07-13
Multi-Tenant Requirements 19:45 2017-07-13

AWS Virtual Networking

Watch this part of the module if you decided to use AWS for your hands-on projects.

37:57 AWS Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) and Subnets

Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) service is the foundation of AWS networking. This section describes VPC concepts, subnets within VPCs, and VPC/subnet addressing.

Virtual Private Cloud 9:33 2023-01-04
VPC Subnets 5:03 2019-05-25
VPC and Subnet Addressing 14:16 2022-12-21
VPC Sharing 9:05 2020-12-18
VPC Scenarios and Examples
User Guide: Working with VPCs
VPC Sharing across AWS Accounts

New AWS Features

Amazon VPC supports multiple IPv6 CIDR blocks

Designing Large-Scale VPN Networks

Designing hyperscale Amazon VPC networks
Network Address Usage for your VPC

1:04:09 Interfaces and IP Addresses in AWS

Subnets are useless without servers connected to them. In this section we'll focus on AWS implementation of VM network interfaces, network interface addressing, and supporting services like DNS and DHCP.

The section also covers advanced concepts like public and private IP addresses, elastic IP addresses, and elastic network interfaces.

Network Interfaces 7:45 2019-05-25
Interface Addressing 16:31 2021-10-11
Bring Your Own Addresses 7:29 2021-10-11
IP Multicast Support 11:47 2021-10-11
DNS and DHCP 7:30 2022-12-21
Sample Deployments 13:07 2019-06-14

Automation Examples

IP Multicast Example
Working with IP Addresses
Working with IP Addresses for Your EC2 Instance
Working with Network Interfaces
Working with Elastic IP Addresses
Bring Your Own IP Addresses
Bring Your Own IPv6 Addresses
IP Multicast implemented in Transit Gateway
Viewing DNS Hostnames for Your EC2 Instance
Working with DHCP Option Sets

Worth Reading

Testing IP Multicast in AWS by Thomas Edwards

New AWS Features

The transfer of Elastic IP addresses between AWS accounts
The IPv6 Subnet default gateway router supports multiple addresses

46:38 Route Tables in AWS

VPC Route Tables are almost like VRFs with a few significant differences:

  • Route tables are applied to subnets;
  • All route tables share the entry for local VPC CIDR block.

This section describes the route tables and details of packet forwarding within VPC.

Route Tables Overview 13:46 2021-10-11
Working with Route Tables 14:14 2021-10-11
VPC Forwarding Behind the Scenes 14:13 2022-12-21

4:25 From the Design Clinic

Subnet Routing in AWS VPC 4:25 2021-10-01
Working with Route Tables
Managed Prefix Lists

Useful Tools

Synchronize routes between main route table and custom route tables

More Information

Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) Express
A Cloud-Optimized Transport Protocol for Elastic and Scalable HPC
Scalable Reliable Datagram (SRD) Protocol Used By Elastic Fabric Adapter
The Security Design of the AWS Nitro System

27:21 Internet Connectivity in AWS

VPC Internet connectivity is usually provided through an Internet gateway. IPv6 hosts that don't provide services to outside clients can use egress-only gateway; similar IPv4 hosts can access Internet through NAT gateway or NAT instance.

This section describes all three mechanisms, and the adjustments to route tables that have to be made to support them.

Internet Connectivity 7:29 2019-12-11
NAT Gateways and Instances 12:08 2022-12-21
VPC Ingress Routing 7:44 2020-12-18
Creating a VPC with an Internet Gateway
Working with Egress-Only Internet Gateways
Working with NAT Gateways
Ingress VPC Routing

New AWS Features

Increased number of concurrent connections on NAT Gateway

Azure Virtual Networking

Watch this part of the module if you decided to use Azure for your hands-on projects.

1:13:53 Azure VNets, Subnets, VM NICs and IP Addresses

In this section you'll learn about Azure virtual networks and subnets, VM interfaces, private and public IP addresses, and DNS and DHCP services.

Virtual Networks and Subnets 20:55 2020-01-04
Interfaces 7:26 2020-01-04
IP Addresses, DNS and DHCP 9:20 2020-01-04
Public IP Prefixes 10:49 2022-11-28
Simple Deployment Scenarios 16:00 2020-01-04

9:23 Hands-on Demos

Create a VNet and Two Subnets, and Deploy VMs 9:23 2019-08-24

53:20 Azure User-Defined Routes and Routing Tables

Each subnet in Azure Virtual Network can have a custom route table. This section describes:

  • System (default) routes always present in virtual networks;
  • Route import from BGP sessions between VNG and customer routers;
  • User-defined static routes.

The examples cover a range of scenarios, from simple private subnet with no Internet access to complex service insertion.

Multiple Routing Tables 10:18 2020-01-04
User-Defined Routes 11:42 2022-11-28
UDR Examples 6:38 2020-01-04
Azure Route Server 17:31 2021-03-12

7:11 Hands-on Demos

Custom Route Tables 7:11 2019-08-24

Configuration Examples

Testing Azure Route Server

New Azure Features

Next hop IP support for Route Server

14:01 Azure Internet Access

Internet access is built into Azure VNet service, and a default route is part of the default routing table. This short section explains the remaining NAT intricacies.

Internet Connectivity 14:01 2020-01-04

Container Networking

3:51:00 Introduction to Docker Networking

While most public clouds base their container networking on Kubernettes, the basic limitations of running networking stacks in Linux namespaces still apply, and you will get a thorough overview of those limitations in this webinar.

Hands-On Exercises

Create Virtual Networking Infrastructure

In this assignment you'll create a full-blown virtual networking infrastructure (virtual network, subnets, Internet access, route tables) and deploy a web server, a back-end server, and a jump host.

Hands-on assignment: create virtual networking infrastructure 2.7K 2020-02-08
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